Total Knee Replacement Surgery

Orthopedics

Treatment Summary

The knee is one of the complex joints in the body. It connects the thighbone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). The knee joint is actually two joints. The major joint is between the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia). The smaller joint is between the kneecap (patella) and the thigh bone (femur). 

A smooth, tough tissue called articular cartilage covers the ends of the bones, allowing them to slide smoothly over each other. The synovial membrane is a bag that covers the surfaces of the knee joint and produces synovial fluid that lubricates the joint. If the articular cartilage becomes damaged, the ends of the bones rub together, causing pain and difficulty in moving the knee joint. A severely damaged joint may become stiff, and difficult to move.

What conditions require Knee Replacement Surgery?

Knee replacement is a routine surgical technique performed when the knee joint gets damaged and patient starts feeling pain in the resting condition and starts losing its mobility. Doctors state that the most common reasonr knee replacement are as follows:
  • Arthritis, mainly osteo and rheumatoid
  • Haemophilia
  • Gout
  • Bone dysplasias i.e. unusual bone growth
  • Avascular necrosis i.e. bone tissue death due to blood supply interruption
  • Severe knee injury
  • Loss of knee cartilage
  • Knee deformity

The procedure

  • This is a mandatory and best surgical procedure which a patient requires at a certain age suffering from severe knee joint pain.The procedure starts one or two weeks before surgery where few tests are performedthe patient before admission in hospital to check which anaesthesia is best for patient. The tests are as follows:

    • Physical diagnosis
    • Anaemia check
    • Certain Blood tests
    • Urine analysis
    • Coagulation test to check if patient is haemophilic
    • Baseline metabolic tests
    • Different cardio related tests
    • X-ray
    • MRI
    After inducing anaesthesia surgeons will perform the surgery by holding the knee in a pyramid position and remove all the excess fat tissue which is a hurdle in the surgery. Now, knee replacement surgery is performed by two different techniques which are as follows:
    • Total Knee Replacement (TKR)A deep incision is made in the skin from the centre of the knee until joint capsula is exposed and knee joints present in both of the sides is replaced with the metal and plastic parts. Surgeons do apply a medicated plaster on knee and adjust the same with different ortho tools which helps the knee to bring back in its original position.

    • Partial Knee Replacement (PKR): In this technique, a small operation is performed where a deep incision made in skin on one side of the knee as only one side of the knee joint required replacing with fresh metallic and plastic parts accompanied by knee cap to cover it. PKR is a small surgery and does not take much time.

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Multi Speciality

Apollo Spectra, Chennai

Chennai, TAMIL NADU, India

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Aluva, KERALA, India

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